modulor

Le Corbusier

Founder of modernist art

measurement tool

French architect

proportioning system

the measuring scale (system of harmonic values) created by Le Corbusier in 1942-1948 as a tool for the proportional construction of architectural forms

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«The Moduler» tries on feet-inches with meters; he translates foot-inches into decimal measures and turns down the barrier that separates people who use these two different systems of measures.

The creation of a modular system designed to normalize and industrialize construction on all continents as industrial products travel around the world these days.

It is a system that aims to introduce into architecture and mechanics dimensions and dimensions consistent with the human scale, to relate to the infinite variety of numbers those basic values of life that man conquers in mastering space

The proportions of the human body and mathematical calculations form the basis of the modulor scale. They are the original dimensions for construction, allowing the architectural elements to be placed in proportion to the human figure

They condition a series of golden ratio, called the Fibonacci series. On the other hand, a simple square, its doubling and two golden sections are created.

On the one hand, the following points of occupied space are determined for a person with a raised hand: foot - solar plexus, solar plexus - head, head - the tip of the fingers of the raised hand - three intervals (triad).

Both series tend to zero (downward)

and to infinity (upwards)

and to infinity (upwards)

New construction objects, which are measured with the modulor, are designed for people of different heights.

the basis of the second, «blue row» — double the value: the height of a man with a raised arm - 216 cm

Modulor is built on the basis of the tallest man at 6 feet (182.88 cm)

The objects of construction are very different receptacles of man or extensions of his gestures (e.g., a car, furniture, a book).

The basis of the «red row» was the value of 108 cm (the conditional distance from ground level to the umbilical cord of an adult)

Modulor components include a 226-cm (89-inch) ruler, a measuring table with two series (red and blue) for calculating structures up to 400 m in height, and a manual for its use

modulore description

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The elements of the triad are the solar plexus, the head, and the end of the fingers of the raised hand. The elements of dualism are the solar plexus, the end of the fingers of the raised hand, that is, in both cases there is unlimited possibility of measurements: by the principle of triad in the red modulor series and dualism in the blue one. Dimension 113 defines the golden section 70, showing the beginning of the first, red series. Size 226 (113x2 doubling) defines the golden section 140-86, showing the beginning of the blue series.

2,260

1,829

1,397

432

1,130

863

698

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A scale of three intervals: 113, 70, 43 (cm), which agree with φ (the golden ratio) and the Fibonacci series: 43+70=113, or 113-70=43. In sum, they give 113+70=183; 113+70+43=226. Due to the equality of the greater element of the triad to the sum of the other two - and this is its meaning - it restores dualism (duality of meaning) and symmetrical division, which it contradicted

Three points of the human figure [113 - solar plexus, 183 - top of the head (ratio φ, 113), 226 - end of the fingers of the raised hand] plus the fourth point - point of support of the lowered hand equal to 86 cm (ratio 140-86) define the space occupied by him

In the industrial world, it is more convenient and profitable to use a universal metric system of multiples than to mess around with a lot of irrational numbers.

According to the architect's conception, with the help of his proportional system, it is possible to set many dimensions of building parts, observing the variety of mating elements. Their mutual dimensions will be anthropomorphic and, therefore, capable of inducing a sense of harmonic resonance.

Le Corbusier traveled the world giving lectures, speaking at architects' congresses, conferences and seminars, convincing industrialists, bankers and builders of the benefits of Modulor.

However, the invention did not live up to the expectations

Chandigarh, Palace of Justice

A joint project involving Indian and foreign architects

An apartment building in Marseille

A 17-storey residential complex of 337 apartments. The building is raised on strong pylons

Notre Dame du Eau

Le Corbusier used the scaling of the modulor in the design of many buildings

The image of the modulor was on the Swiss 10 franc bill of 1997 dedicated to Le Corbusier

The project is designed for non-profit purposes as part of the course

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